Two species of annual Buglossoides are native to South Tyrol. Beside the Corn Gromwell Buglos-soides arvensis there is Buglossoides incrassata with two subspecies native to South Tyrol, too. Due to its great morphological plasticity B. incrassata subsp. leithneri has not been recognised in the past as independent taxon, but has been confused with B. arvensis. The results of the present study imply this taxon to be the most common annual Buglossoides taxon in South Tyrol. The second subspecies, the mediterranean B. incrassata subsp. incrassata, is known from only one location up to now. Important diagnostic features of B. arvensis and B. incrassata include the sequence of ITS1 region of the ribosomal nuclear DNA (the 238 bp long ITS1 sequences differ in 15 base pairs) and the shape and venation of the cotyledons (B. arvensis has oblong cotyledones with a distinct secondary venation, B. incrassata has rounded cotyledones without secondary venation). B. arvensis is a typical weed and occurs mostly in arable land and vine yards whereas B. incrassata grows preferably in dry grassland and pastures, but also in arable land and vine yards. B. incrassata subsp. incrassata is limited to dry pastures. Further characteristic features as well as the current endangering are discussed.