A checklist and red list of the grasshopper and mantid species of South Tyrol are presented. The red list categories were assigned on the basis of three separately specified indicators: frequency, population trend and habitat loss. We also provide information about habitat preferences and vertical distribution as well as about a possible particular responsibility and the need for urgent intervention for each single species. The grasshopper and mantid fauna of South Tyrol encompasses 85 and 2 species, respectively. Two grasshopper and one mantid species are not or doubtfully established and hence excluded from the red list. Of the remaining 83 evaluated grasshopper species, 6 are extinct (RE) and 28 (36%) endangered of which 18 are assigned to the categories VU, EN, or CR and 10 to NT. 46 species (61%) are considered of least concern (LC). The only evaluated mantid species, Mantis religiosa, is not endangered. The intensification of agriculture turns out to be the main cause of threat. Other, somewhat less important causes are species rarity and the abandonment of agriculture. For some species, particularly for those of alluvial plains, urbanization (including construction of hydropower plants) is a serious risk. Collecting and direct harvesting, respectively, is not considered as a real source of risk. Most endangered species occur at lower altitude, predominantely in the colline and montane belt, and inhabit wetlands, manmade dry grasslands and bushes. Further important habitats for endangered grasshopper species include extensive hay meadows and alluvial plains.