Within the framework of the “Habitat Schlern/Sciliar” interdisciplinary project, the vascular flora of Mt. Schlern was recorded. The study area included the Schlern massif, covering 20 km² and ranging from 1.000 to 2.560 m a.s.l. Within this area, 794 taxa were observed recently. The chorological analysis of all autochthonous taxa in the area showed a relatively high proportion of nemoral (23 %) and alpide (22 %) elements. The spatial proximity of alpine (7 %) and arctic-alpine (7 %) elements as well as those that are submediterranean (6 %) is worthy of note. Forty-one species from the study area are endemic to the Alps. Three of them have a very restricted distribution area (stenoendemites): Campanula morettiana, Gentianella engadinensis, and Rhizobotrya alpina. Thirteen species are endemic to the Eastern Alps and 15 to the Southeastern Alps. The Schlern is home to the most important or, in some cases, the only populations in South Tyrol of the following species, some of which are endemic and some of which are relic: Androsace vitaliana, Campanula morettiana, and Carex maritima. When comparing recent data with that from the historical literature, it emerges that 199 taxa are new to the Schlern, while 135 taxa reported in the literature were not reconfirmed. Possible causes of the absence of confirmation are discussed in detail. Species richness and species diversity make the Schlern an outstanding, important site for the flora of South Tyrol. Considerations regarding nature conservancy may help to counteract possible negative impacts. This especially concerns the populations of the relic species.